Month: February 2017
December 16, 2015
|Phishing email scams attempt to lure people in by mimicking real emails from big companies so perpetrators can do things like install malware on your computer, access your bank account or even steal your identity. So how savvy are we when it comes to differentiating the real from the fake? To find out, we partnered with our friends at NBC’s TODAY show to create a quiz that tests your phishing email smarts.|
So far, over 20,000 Americans have taken the quiz, developed from real emails that ESET security researchers collected and analyzed. First, if you haven’t already, take the quiz yourself—then read on (no peeking!) to see how you compare. (Note: The quiz works best in Chrome, Firefox or Safari browsers.)
Can you catch the phish?
You’ve got a bunch of emails that look like they’re from companies you’ve done business with. Can you tell which ones are phishes?
Take the Quiz!
What do the results reveal?
Fully 25% of people cannot consistently identify phishing emails (they missed correctly identifying one or more phish or non-phish). The question most often answered incorrectly was this Target email—it was not a phish, but 61% thought it was.
However, cybercriminals often do spin up phishing schemes to take advantage of vulnerable people and brands in crisis, as happened after the Anthem hack in early 2015, so it’s good to remain vigilant.
The phishing emails that fooled people most often were the Amazon and FedEx emails. One in five people were taken in by this:
Upon scrutiny, you can discern several clues. Amazon’s logo appears squished, and there are several grammatical errors at the end—unlikely in a real email from the world’s biggest retailer.
With this FedEx email, 22% of people were tricked.
The tell? Asking you to download an attachment—especially if it does not seem to match the content in the email—is suspicious. Downloading an attachment like this can deliver malware to your computer, often without you even knowing you have been infected.
Here is the breakdown from each email question, so you can see how you compare:
- Southwest: 89% correctly identified this as a phish
- Amazon: 79% correctly identified this as a phish
- Google: 53% correctly identified this as NOT a phish
- Apple: 87% correctly identified this as NOT a phish
- FedEx: 78% correctly identified this as a phish
- PayPal: 96% correctly identified this as a phish
- Gap: 68% correctly identified this as NOT a phish
- Target: 39% correctly identified this as NOT a phish
So what does this all mean?
[…]Research indicates that phishing scams are still a major way that cybercriminals take advantage of people and businesses. It’s important for us to constantly educate the public, for businesses to educate employees, and for parents to educate kids… and kids to educate parents and grandparents!
The data show that one in four people still get things wrong, and once is all it takes. The basic lesson here is to always exercise caution and promote safe Internet practices.
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By, Serina Sandhu, January 17, 2017
Even tech-savvy Gmail users are falling victim to hackers who steal their login credentials, according to a security expert, who notes that increasingly sophisticated phishing techniques are being employed.
How does it work?
The hacker will first send you an email, which includes an attachment, according to Mark Maunder, the CEO of WordPress security plugin, Wordfence.
When you click on the attachment to preview it, a new tab opens to what looks like a Gmail login page. However it isn’t genuine. If you enter your email and password, hackers will have stolen your credentials and have full access to all of your emails.
But why would I open the email from a random person in the first place?
Because the hackers have devised the email to look like it comes from one of your contacts, someone who is likely to have already been hacked by them.
The email will contain a subject line and the attachment from the contact may look familiar – they may use a subject line that your contact has used before – and rename the attachment to something plausible.
Once the hackers gain access to your emails, they will look for future targets they can send the phishing emails to.
Won’t I know something fishy is going on when I’m asked to login again?
Not necessarily, because the hackers have been very sophisticated when creating the phishing technique.
When you open the attachment and a new tab pops open, the URL will look something like:
That’s not a far cry from what it is meant to look like on the legitimate Gmail login page:
And the login box, where you enter your email and password, looks like the real one.
How long has this phishing technique been going on for?
It’s been gaining popularity over the last year.
Surely if you’re tech savvy, you’re safe?
Sadly not. Even “experienced technical users” have become victim to the hacks, says Mr. Maunder.
So how do I stay safe?
There are some checks you can do before typing in your login details:
First, check the URL to see if it begins with: data:text.
Second, if you widen out the bar, you will see there is a lot of blank space which may not be visible at first. After the blank space is the file that actually opens in a new tab, informs Mr. Maunder.
Also check to see if the URL has been verified. Depending on your internet browser, the https:// might be in green, and there may be a padlock symbol before it.
You can also enable a two-factor authentication for logging in to your Gmail. So on top of the username and password, there would be an extra layer of security that will require an extra piece of information.
What if my account has already been hacked?
It would be best to change your password straightaway. Also you can check your login history to find logins from unknown sources.
Mr. Maunder also recommends using a security researcher who can check if your email has been part of data leaks, but adds: “There is no sure way to check if your account has been compromised.”
When I contacted Google for a comment, they pointed to Prevent & report phishing attacks page.
“We advise people to be careful anytime you receive a message from a site asking for personal information. If you get this type of message, don’t provide the information requested without confirming that the site is legitimate. If possible, open the site in another window instead of clicking the link in your email. You can report suspicious messages directly to us. Google will never send unsolicited messages asking for your password or other personal information.”
Krebs on Security, February 7, 2017
In-depth security news and investigation
On Monday of last week, The U.S. House of Representatives approved a bill that would update the nation’s email surveillance laws so that federal investigators are required to obtain a court-ordered warrant for access to older stored emails. Under the current law, U.S. authorities can legally obtain stored emails older than 180 days using only a subpoena issued by a prosecutor or FBI agent without the approval of a judge.
The House passed by a voice vote The Email Privacy Act (HR 387). The bill amends the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA), a 1986 statute that was originally designed to protect Americans from Big Brother and from government overreach. Unfortunately, the law is now so outdated that it actually provides legal cover for the very sort of overreach it was designed to prevent.
Online messaging was something of a novelty when lawmakers were crafting ECPA, which gave email moving over the network essentially the same protection as a phone call or postal letter. In short, it required the government to obtain a court-approved warrant to gain access to that information.
But the U.S. Justice Department wanted different treatment for stored electronic communications. Congress struck a compromise, decreeing that after 180 days email would no longer be protected by the warrant standard and instead would be available to the government with an administrative subpoena and without requiring the approval of a judge.
HR 387’s sponsor Kevin Yoder (R-Kan.) explained in a speech on the House floor Monday that back when the bill was passed, hardly anybody stored their personal correspondence “in the cloud.” He said the thinking at the time was that “if an individual was leaving an email on a third-party server it was akin to that person leaving their paper mail in a garbage can at the end of their driveway.”
“Thus, that individual had no reasonable expectation of privacy in regards to that email under the Fourth Amendment,” Yoder said.
Lee Tien, a senior staff attorney with the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), said a simple subpoena also can get law enforcement the following information about communications records (in addition to the content of emails stored at a service provider for more than 180 days):
-local and long distance telephone connection records, or records of session times and durations;
-length of service (including start date) and types of service utilized;
-telephone or instrument number or other subscriber number or identity, including any temporarily assigned network address; and
-means and source of payment for such service (including any credit card or bank account number), of a subscriber to or customer of such service when the governmental entity uses an administrative subpoena authorized by a Federal or State statute or a Federal or State grand jury or trial subpoena.
The Email Privacy Act does not force investigators to jump through any additional hoops for accessing so-called “metadata” messaging information about stored communications, such as the Internet address or email address of a message sender. Under ECPA, the “transactional” data associated with communications — such as dialing information showing what numbers you are calling — was treated as less sensitive. ECPA allows the government to use something less than a warrant to obtain this routing and signaling information.
The rules are slightly different in California, thanks to the passage of CalECPA, a law that went into effect in 2016. CalECPA not only requires California government entities to obtain a search warrant before obtaining or accessing electronic information, it also requires a warrant for metadata.
Activists who’ve championed ECPA reform for years are cheering the House vote, but some are concerned that the bill may once again get hung up in the Senate. Last year, the House passed the bill in an unanimous 419-0 vote, but the measure stalled in the upper chambers of the Senate.
The EFF’s Tien said he’s worried that the bill heading to the Senate may not have the support of the Trump administration, which could hinder its chances in a Republican-controlled chamber.
“The Senate is a very different story, and it was a different story last year when Democrats had more votes,” Tien said.
Whether the bill even gets considered by the Senate at all is bound to be an issue again this year.
“I feel a little wounded because it’s been a hard fight,” Tien said. “It hasn’t been an easy fight to get this far.”
The U.S. government is not in the habit of publishing data about subpoenas it has requested and received, but several companies that are frequently on the receiving end of such requests do release aggregate numbers. For example, Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft and Twitter all publish transparency reports. They’re worth a read.
For a primer on protecting your communications from prying eyes and some tools to help preserve your privacy, check out the EFF’s Surveillance Self-Defense guide.
Reprinted from ITG’s January issue of Tech News
By Kim Komando, © 2017 Tulsa World syndicated under contract with NewsEdge.
For millions of Americans, the smartphone has become one of the most important tools in their lives. Your phone tracks your movements, absorbs emails and text messages and notifies you of every birthday and appointment. Every second, information floods your smartphone. Unless you switch them off, your apps are working round the clock, obeying your every setting and preference.
All day long your phone is churning private data through its circuitry, and if criminals can break into your phone, they can steal all kinds of things, from banking details to compromising photos and video. These thieves don’t have to steal your actual phone. They may not even be located in the same country.
How do they do it? Spyware, which is kind of like a computer virus, except instead of messing up your hard drive, it enables strangers to snoop on you. Skilled hackers can install spyware on your phone without you even realizing it.
Once it’s on your phone, spyware can record everything you do, from sending text messages to shooting video of your family reunion. Hackers may break into private accounts, commandeer email and even blackmail their victims.
Keep in mind, “spyware” is a vague and multi-faceted term, and it’s not always malevolent. Some parents install a kind of spyware on their kids’ smartphones in order to keep track of their activities. Managers sometimes keep tabs on their employees by watching what they do on their company computers. I don’t endorse this behavior, and I think there are much healthier ways of watching kids and employees, but this kind of spyware isn’t intended to ruin your life.
Don’t click strange links. The easiest way to avoid contracting spyware is this: Don’t click strange links. If you receive an email from a suspicious stranger, don’t open it. If you receive an email or text from someone you do know but the message seems peculiar, contact your friend by phone or social media to see whether the message was intended.
This might sound obvious, but sometimes our curiosity gets the better of us. When a link appears, some of us struggle to avoid clicking it, just because we want to know where it leads. Other times, an authentic-looking email is actually a phishing scam in disguise. If you’re the least bit doubtful, don’t click.
Lock your phone. Some types of phones are more susceptible to spyware than others. (More about this below). But owners can dramatically reduce their chances of infection by locking their phones. A simple PIN will deter most hackers.
Also avoid lending your phone to strangers. Yes, some people honestly forget their chargers at home and urgently need to call their spouses. But a clever con artist only needs your unlocked phone for a minute to cause a lot of damage. In this case, being a Good Samaritan is risky business.
Androids and spyware. The bad news is this: Android phones are particularly vulnerable to spyware. It’s simple to install a spying app on any Android gadget, but only once you get past the lock screen.
To protect yourself, make sure you have the lock screen turned on and no one knows the PIN, password or pattern. You can make it even harder by blocking the installation of third-party apps. To do this, go to Settings; Security and uncheck the Unknown Sources option. It won’t stop a really knowledgeable snoop, but it could stump less-savvy ones.
iPhones and spyware. Apple users can get pretty smarmy about their products. If you own an iPhone, you probably already know that your phone is far safer from malware than Android gadgets. A recent “Forbes” study showed that nearly 97 percent of all known malware threats only affect Android devices.
That’s good news for Mac addicts, but it can also make owners overconfident. Last August, Apple had to release an extremely critical iOS update to patch a security threat. Before the update, an attacker could take over and fully control an iPhone remotely just by clicking the right link.
Investigators learned that this kind of attack was called Trident, and the spyware was called Pegasus. The latest iOS was partly designed to prevent these exploits from damaging your iPhone. This is just one reason you should keep your iPhone up to date.
To get the latest version of iOS, go to Settings; General; Software Update. Your device will then automatically check for the latest version of the Apple operating system.
Secondhand smartphones. Beware the secondhand smartphone. Sometimes they’re handy, because a jail-broken phone is cheap and disposable and may work with many service providers. But they may also come with spyware already installed.
Buying a secondhand phone is a common practice, especially if you’re traveling in a foreign country or you’re between contracts and just need something for the short-term. If you have any suspicions about your phone, your best tactic is to reset factory settings. It’s inconvenient, but it might save you a lot of heartache down the line.
ITG has a solution that will provide client companies with the security to recover from a ransomware attack.
Reprinted from ITG’s January issue of Tech News
ITG provides an enterprise-grade File Sync & Share (FSS) solution built for the needs of today’s business users. It provides the security, mobility and control your organization needs to feel confident when accessing, sharing and/or collaborating with files and data among team members, both internal and external to the organization. Most importantly, our solution provides you the opportunity to restore your files to the most recent good version if your business is faced with an actual ransomware attack, which could take place at any time and with no notice.
With ITG as your service provider, you can reap the benefits of a proven FSS solution built on three pillars of unprecedented strength:
Mobility & Accessibility
Fully exploit the power of your smart devices, transforming tablets and smartphones into reliable alternatives to carrying a laptop. You will have anywhere, anytime access to the most up-to-minute business content which empowers good decisions.
Our FSS solution is flexible and open and designed for business of all sizes, where control and management of cloud services is now critical to business operations:
- You can provide secure access for employees, clients and other third party resources to work together on projects.
- Take collaboration to a whole new level with real-time access and editing capabilities.
Enterprise Grade Security
Critical business content needs to be secure at all times.
- ITG’s FSS solution is an enterprise-grade cloud-based service that has 99.9% uptime with stringent levels of security certifications including HIPAA, SSAE-16 and SOC1 Type II compliance.
- We adhere to all local regulations for data.
If you have been hit by ransomware, here is what to do:
In the event a computer is infected with a ransomware trojan such as CryptoLocker, we recommend you immediately disconnect the affected computer(s) from your network and attempt to remove the malware from the affected computer(s). The safest remediation may be to re-format the affected computer to ensure all remnants of the CryptoLocker trojan has been removed.
If you currently use ITG’s FSS solution and your workplace files and folders were affected by CryptoLocker, our data-retention and versioning control will allow you to revert your projects, folder, and files to a previous time before they became infected.
For more information on how to protect your business against the real threat of Ransomware, contact ITG to schedule a demo today!
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Use These Five Backup and Recovery Best Practices to Protect Against Ransomware
Reprinted from ITG’s January issue of Tech News
Analysts: Robert Rhame, Roberta J. Witty; June 8, 2016
Ransomware is on the rise, and its perpetrators are effectively evading countermeasures. I&O and business continuity management leaders should plan for the inevitable, limited or widespread, ransomware incident.
- Incumbent antivirus prevention techniques cannot be relied upon to detect and stop all ransomware.
- A single infected client can encrypt all file shares they have access to, potentially including cloud storage locations.
- Once files are encrypted, organizations have two choices: restore from a backup or pay up.
- Ransomware is generating huge revenue for criminals and it should be expected that these attacks will intensify in volume and sophistication.
- Ensure that your organization has a single dedicated crisis management team.
- Implement an enterprise endpoint backup product to protect user data on laptops and workstations.
- Build a list of storage locations that users can connect to that are inherently vulnerable, such as file shares.
- Evaluate the potential business impact of data being encrypted due to a ransomware attack, and adjust recovery point objectives (RPOs) to more frequently back up these computer systems.
- Align with the information security, IT disaster recovery and network teams to develop a unified incident response that focuses on resiliency, not only prevention.
Users are only a click away from a drive-by download of malware from a compromised web page, or [the] launch of a trojan attachment from a ransomware spam campaign. The rapid-release nature of the malware underground means that antivirus vendors are playing a game of catch-up. The ransomware authors only have to be successful in bypassing defenses once, and they change their tactics constantly in order to do so. Organizations must assume accidents will happen, and that their data will be held for ransom.
Ransomware is a form of malware where files are encrypted and then a bitcoin ransom is demanded in return for the decryption key. There are two types of attack mechanisms for ransomware:
- In the more common scenario, an end user is duped into clicking an attachment or visits the wrong web page resulting in his/her laptop or workstation and all connected file shares being encrypted.
- The less common scenario to date is a targeted approach where hackers get inside the organization and then use encryption of data as a tool to force payment.
So far, most ransomware authors prefer to cash out, so they immediately and prominently inform the victim that files have been encrypted. Some might use threats or scare tactics—such as setting a deadline after which the data will be permanently lost —encouraging a sense of urgency and keeping the victim off balance. Some ransomware may even use tactics to try to avoid detection long enough that backup retention expires before demanding a ransom.
Your first impulse might be to increase backup retention, but, on reflection, it is hard to imagine having to restore a backup that is older than 90 or 120 days. Instead of making these kinds of blanket changes, it is important for organizations to first understand what type of data storage is typically affected by a ransomware attack.
Typical Data Storage Affected
In most cases, the initial ransomware attack occurs on a user’s laptop or workstation. Therefore, locally stored data in files and folders, file shares, cloud storage via gateways, as well as any mapped network drives, is inherently vulnerable.
Data Affected Because of Replication
Enterprise file synchronization and sharing (EFSS) in and of itself is not vulnerable since an agent handles the communication with the on-site or in-the-cloud synch and share server. In this case, there is no mount point for the ransomware to traverse; however, the replication mechanism will replicate changes made locally as part of the functionality, thereby replicating the encrypted files (and, possibly in the future, also malware) to the shared directories. EFSS typically has versioning capabilities, but not bulk restore. A laptop restored using endpoint backup will replicate the last good versions as a new file change, but there may be scenarios where cleaning up the versions to a known clean state will be desired.
Not Vulnerable Today
SharePoint or any web application where end users’ access is through an authenticated web browser session is not vulnerable to a ransomware attack yet. As the countermeasures evolve, ransomware attackers might begin including a remote access trojan (RAT) in the malware in order to manually remote control the infected host and overcome limitations of an automated attack. A similar tactic was used with banking trojans when countermeasures began to reduce effectiveness of the automated approach. This is a very manual process for the attackers, requires a connection to the infected host and does not scale.
Follow the five backup and recovery best practices documented in this research to ensure that you are as protected as possible from ransomware attacks.
Step 1: Form a Single Crisis Management Team
An effective response to the ransomware threat must be a holistic and multilevel one — reducing the likelihood of a successful attack to the bare minimum, while simultaneously ensuring the ability to recover from an unprevented attack. IT operations and IT disaster recovery (IT DR) must work with their counterparts in information security to develop an integrated response and recovery approach, including a framework for responding to all new threats and a continuously updated risk assessment of the IT infrastructure vulnerable to a ransomware attack.
Step 2: Implement Endpoint Backup
Without a backup, years of locally stored files and folders on a laptop/workstation would be lost; that is, unless the organization wants to pay to release them, fueling the ransomware economy. Even without ransomware, complications and costs from potential disclosure resulting from loss, theft and hard drive crashes can quickly help build a compelling case for deploying laptop and workstation backup. Therefore, implementing endpoint backup solutions will ensure you have a safe copy of your data that can be restored once faced with the threat.
Depending on the endpoint backup product’s capabilities, backup schedules can be configured to run at intervals of several times an hour, several times a day, or during idle laptop/workstation cycles. The decision must be made as to what timeframe is an acceptable loss for the organization based on recovery requirements.
Endpoint backup can provide two key functions:
- Laptop or workstation restore — after the ransomware infection has been remediated, all files up to the last backup can be restored.
- EFSS upstream replication — once the restore is completed, the administrator can reconnect the user to his/her synch and share application. The restored files will synchronize from the local EFSS folder to the user’s directories, thereby replacing the encrypted files.
Endpoint backup solutions can be configured to back up mapped drives (such as home folders or file shares) to accelerate returning a single employee back to production, but they do not replace a centralized solution in the case of an overall storage failure or wider infection.
Justification for the investment in endpoint backup can be calculated using the following metrics: productivity loss per employee for all involved; aalaries of each employee involved; time involved to recreate content; and the number of estimated ransomware incidents, accidental deletions, hard drive crashes or laptop losses/thefts.
Refer to “How to Address Three Key Challenges When Considering Endpoint Backup” to learn more about this cost calculation algorithm.
Step 3: Identify Network Storage Locations and Servers Vulnerable to Ransomware Encryption
- Enumerate Obviously Vulnerable Storage Locations
The most important task is to revisit RPOs for potentially vulnerable storage locations. Following the laptop or workstation infection, the ransomware traverses all mount points configured in Windows Explorer in an attempt to encrypt everything it finds. A first assessment can be done by talking to the Active Directory and/or PC deployment group to find out what the standard Group Policy Mapped Drives are for each new laptop or workstation image. This task provides an inventory of servers for further investigation and audit for overly permissive inherited permissions.
- Don’t Forget the Not-So-Obvious Vulnerable Storage Locations
A single mapped drive could cause unexpected servers to be affected. It is common for database and application administrators to map drives to work with full system privileges at the file system level in order to perform installs, maintenance, upgrades or troubleshooting of the software/applications that they are working on. If an administrator has a drive mapped “persistently” (the box “reconnect at logon” is checked) and his/her workstation gets infected, then data on any mapped drive will also be encrypted. If cross-zone drive mapping is allowed, you must communicate to all privileged users that they should not use persistent mapping, and then disconnect these drives rather than leaving them open for their entire user session.
Step 4: Develop Appropriate RPOs and Backup Cadences for Network Storage and Servers
The next step is to re-examine your organization’s RPOs for appropriateness to the business function. It is likely that file shares are only backed up nightly; therefore, if they are actively used as an ad hoc collaboration system, then a loss could hurt the organization worse than expected because of the greater potential for losing new and modified data. There are two steps to this task:
- First, determine how much data loss the organization will accept. While never a comfortable exercise, the reality is that the greater your loss avoidance risk position, the more likely a solution will require more resources.
- Second, set the RPOs for each server deemed to be at greater risk to ransomware, and according to organizational requirements based on a data loss time frame that is acceptable to the organization.
The primary goal is to leverage newer backup methodologies to achieve more frequent recovery points. This may mean acquiring new technology, or simply fully deploying capabilities of the existing storage and backup solutions already in place. The goal here is backing up more often.
If available, leverage fast-scan capabilities to back up only changed files or changed block tracking for storage arrays and/or virtual machines (VMs) in order to schedule more frequent backups. This will allow for more frequent backups while requiring fewer resources, thus offering greater protection.
It is advisable to implement less predictable backup times with at least one RPO during the day, when new infections are most likely to occur. Rudimentary time-based encryption/decryption cycles have been observed in some ransomware attacks, most likely to masquerade the ransomware’s presence for as long as possible.
For selected workloads, tactically implement new technologies that can step backward to recovery points, such as continuous data protection (CDP), hyperconverged integrated systems (HCIS), hypervisor-based replication products, or DR replication that includes change journaling.
There have been a few reports that perpetrators are encrypting backed-up data before triggering the ransomware attack to encrypt production data. The result of this added step in the attack process could mean that the most current backups won’t be of value, and restore will have to be done from older or offline versions.
As an overall defense, Gartner’s best practice for backup is to have at least two copies of your backed-up data geographically dispersed to mitigate against a broad range of natural and man-made disasters. Ideally, at least one copy of the backed-up data is offline and off-site to reduce the impact of accidental or malicious destruction.
Step 5: Create Reporting Notifications for Change Volume Anomalies
For future ransomware attacks, there might not be a ransom demand immediately; therefore, it is imperative that the activity be noticed quickly. Combined with running select backups during the day, reporting on storage anomalies can help identify that an attack has occurred or is actively underway. Implementing such reports includes three tasks:
- Create a report in your enterprise backup application that will trigger an alert when a high number of changes occurring on servers results in a sudden and marked increase in storage.
- Create reports based on capacity thresholds for devices that use deduplication, such as backup target appliances and HCIS, since unexpected encryption will result in 100% change rate and a large increase in storage consumption.
- Examine the reporting capabilities available in your endpoint backup application and EFSS, and implement a storage anomaly report.
Additional research contribution and review by Pushan Rinnen and Dave Russell.